FLOW BLUE PART II
Vol. 2 Issue 12
The three periods and patterns used for Flow Blue are:
Early Victorian: c. 1835-1860 - Oriental and Scenic Patterns
Middle Victorian: 1860's - 1870's - Floral patterns
Late Victorian: 1880's - early 1900's - Art Nouveau patterns
DATING FLOW BLUE
The manufacturer's marks usually included the pattern name, the manufacturer name and/or symbol. The marks were applied in many ways. Some were: scratching the unfired piece, impression of the stamp, painting the mark before or after glazing, or a transfer mark that is applied at the same time as the pattern and then fired. The two most common ways of applying a mark are impression and transfer marks.
1755-No marks used prior to 1755.
1801-Printed marks occured after 1800
1810-Marks with the name of the pattern postdates 1810; most are later.
1810-The English Royal Coat of Arms appears on marks after 1810.
1830-"published by" was used approximately from 1830-1840 and refers to the English 1797 Sculpture Copyright Act
1838-Victorian quarter arms first appeared in 1838
1840-Round or oval-shaped garter-like marks are first used in 1840
1842-Manufacturers marks including diamond-shaped registration marks used from 1842 through 1883. The registration mark was an English designation indicating that a design or process has been registered.
1850-"Royal" in the manufacturer's name was used on many English marks after 1850.
1855-Marks using the word "Limited" or any standard abbreviation on English pieces post-date an 1855 act establishing them and this does not appear before the 1860's.
1859-"Copyright" dates from 1859 to the present. It is usually a 20th century mark. It indicates a design, name, or material is registered under the United States copyright laws.
1863-"Trade Mark" has been used since 1863 on English pieces in accordance with the Trademark Act of 1862. It was added to American pieces after 1875.
1877-"Copyright reserved" dates from 1877 and is used on English pieces.
1880-"England" in a mark dates a piece after 1880, and generally after 1891, on exported pieces.
1884-When a registration number is present, it is the English indication that a design or process has been registered. This originated in 1884.
1887-"Made in" use began in 1887 and is used today. English law required imported pieces to be marked "made in" and the country name.
1890's/1920's-"warranted" had three different uses. In the United States and England it was part of the company name in the 1890's. It was also part of the term "warranted 22 karat gold". This was a guarantee that it was real gold, in the 1920's.
1900-"Made in England" is a 20th century term required only on pieces exported from England. "Patented" is found from 1900+ and signifies that a patent was granted by the United States Patent Office.
1901-After 1901 "U.S. patent" was used to indicate that the design or method is patented in the United States. It may be found on pieces outside of the United States.
1902-"patented applied for" dates from 1902 to present. It indicates that a patent application has been filed with the United States Patent Office.
1900-"semi-vitreous" another term for "ironstone" used after 1901.
1903-"underglaze" was used approximately from 1903 to 1945. It was used to indicate that the design was applied under the glaze.
1927-"designed expressly for" or "made expressly for" were used ca. 1927 and continues to the present time. Special patterns were made occasionally by factories for special customers. They were usually marked with the customer's name, as well as, the factory name.
A word of caution in dating flow blue by manufacturer marks. A date used as part of the mark does not mean that is the date of production. It is usually the date the factory was established or the related predecessor. Also, many ceramic pieces were unmarked. An unmarked piece may not mean it is an early date. Often, it means that the manufacturer's name was not well known and would not add value to the piece by adding the name. You will then have to rely on your experience and knowledge of patterns, forms, and periods of production.
English registration marks are known to be the most complete and useful marks for identification and dating of English ceramics. English art designs have been registered since 1842 at the British patent office. However, keep in mind that not all registered pieces are marked.
The diamond-shaped mark was used between 1842 and 1883. The information changed in the mark in 1867. In 1884 the diamond-shape mark was discontinued for the registry numbers. In 1884 the use of Registry numbers (Rd.No.) indicated the year the piece was registered in a numeric sequence beginning with the number "1". This date provides the earliest date of manufacture.
For an example of a registry mark and corresponding dates Click Here
1842-1867 diamond-shaped mark - The letters and numbers indicate the following:(see link for example of registry mark)
The large Rd means "registered"; the Roman numeral in the circle at the top of the mark represents the type of material from which the piece is produced; the Letter in the top inside section of the diamond represents the year the piece was registered; the numeral on the right hand section represents the day of the month the piece was registered; the numeral in the section at the bottom represents the parcel number, which is a code indicating the person or company who registered the piece; and the letter in the left-hand section represents the month the piece was registered.
In the 1868-1883 mark, the numbers and their locations are changed: The large Rd and the Roman Numeral at the top remain unchanged. The numeral in the top inside section of the diamond represents the day of the month the piece was registered; the letter in the right-hand section represents the year the piece was registered; the letter in the bottom segment signifies the month the piece was registered; and the numeral at the left-hand side represents the parcel number.
Type of Material:
Month of manufacture
Year of Manufacture--1842-1867
Year of Manufacture--1868-1883
Flow Blue, A Collector's Guide To Patterns, History, & Values
Stoke-On-Trent, Pottery and Ceramics
The next Nancy's Antiques & Collectibles Newsletter will feature Ruby Red Flashed Patterned Glass.
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