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Limoges porcelain has been manufactured in Limoges, France since the mid-nineteenth century. The porcelain was made by many different manufacturers; one of which is Haviland China.
"D. G. and D. Haviland" was founded in 1838 by the Haviland Brothers of New York City; David and Daniel Haviland. In 1852, "Haviland Brothers & Co." was formed with all the brothersl; David, Daniel, Richard, and Robert Barclay. In 1864 "Haviland Brothers & Co" was dissolved and David Haviland formed "Haviland & Co." with his sons, Theodore and Charles Edward. After the death of David Haviland, the company continued under the supervision of his sons. In 1892 the partnership was dissolved.
Theodore Haviland left the company to start his own business "Theodore Haviland & Co." in 1892. Some of his pieces were marked "Mont Mery". Other logos included a horseshoe, a shield, and various styles of his name and initials. In 1941, his company was moved to the United States. Those made in the United States are marked "Theodore Haviland, N.Y." or "Made in America".
In 1892, Charles Edward operated under the name "Haviland & Co." until the company was bought by Maison GDA in 1931.
William David, Theodore's son, took over the Limoges, France operation in 1919. In 1936 he began producing china in the United States. In 1941, he bought all the marks, models, and rights from the "Haviland & Co.", reuniting the company under the name "Haviland S.A." About 80% of the company's porcelain is produced in Limoges. The marks "Theodore Haviland, France" or "Theodore Haviland, New York" are the older patterns. Patterns from the last 20 to 30 years are marked "Haviland Limoges France".
John Haviland, one of the sons of Charles Edward, set up a factory under the name of "Johann Haviland", in Bavaria, Germany in 1907. He sold the name and rights to Waldershof Porzellanfabrik A.G. in 1924. It is controlled by Philip Rosenthal.
Robert Barclay formed a company with his sons, Frederick and Charles Field, in 1865.
Charles Field worked at Limoges with his Uncle, David Haviland, in 1852. In 1859 he started his own company with his Uncle Richard. Then, in 1865, he joined his father and formed a new company. In 1870, he founded "Charles Field Haviland & Co.". In 1876 he took control of the "Alluaud factory. In 1881 it became "GDM" (Gerard, Dufraisseix & Morel). It later became "GDA" (Gerard, Dufraisseix & Abbott).
In 1924, Robert, son of Charles Field, started his own factory. He bought the rights to "Charles Field Haviland" mark in 1941. The factory still operates today under the name of "Robert Haviland & C. Parlon".
It is estimated that there are 60,000 different patterns that have been designed. Various situations in the family members, as mentioned above, have resulted in changes in the management of the company, as well as the company name, logo, and backstamps. "H. & Co." was used until 1890 when a law was enforced, which required the name of the country of origin. Some of the various marks used since then are: "Haviland, France", Haviland & Co. Limoges", and "Decorated by Haviland & Co.".
Haviland China is most well known for its dinnerware. However, during the 1880's and 1890's they also made beautiful art pottery. They used a technique called "barbotine, which is an underglaze slip decoration invented by Ernest Chaplet. Haviland bought the formula and hired Ernest Chaplet to oversee its production in 1885. When the piece was completed, it resembled an oil painting of the period.
To view some examples of Theodore Haviland and Johann Haviland China:
Schroeder's Antiques Price Guide-Eighteenth Edition
Kovels' Antiques & Collectibles/Price List 2003
Kovels' New Dictionary of Marks-Pottery & Porcelain 1850 to the Present
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